Tri Le, Development of Heterogeneous Catalyst Using Palladium Nanoparticles for Suzuki Coupling and 4-nitrophenol Reduction
Cross coupling reactions have been essential in organic chemistry due to the reaction’s ability to form carbon-carbon bonds using a catalyst and the aid of an activating group.1 In 2010, Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Akira Suzuki received the Nobel Prize of Chemistry for their contributions to palladium cross coupling.2 One of the most popular techniques that integrate palladium cross coupling is Suzuki coupling, which involves a reaction between organoboron compounds and organic halides in the presence of a palladium catalyst.
Nitrophenol compounds are used in the formation of dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, chemical intermediates, explosives and fungicides. However, these compounds are toxic to both humans and the environment.3 In particular, 4-nitrophenol is the most prominent and toxic nitrophenol compound.4 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry placed 4-nitrophenol threat to human and environment.1,5 Using catalytic degradation, 4-nitrophenol can be easily converted into the safer 4-aminophenol which can be used to produce analgesic and antipyretic drugs.
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